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Life on Venus?

Last week there was a bit of fuss in the news about whether scientists have found evidence of life on Venus. The short answer is: they haven’t. But they have found something very interesting.

Evidence of a molecule called phosphine (PH3) has been detected in the Venusian atmosphere. This came as such a surprise, that the researchers confirmed it with two different telescopes – the JCMT and ALMA – before publishing their result.
Full article here

Why is Phosphine interesting?

On Earth, the molecule Phosphine is produced primarily by microbial life. Although it can be made by other means, the amount detected is so large (20 parts per billion) that its production is difficult to explain. In their study, the researchers calculated and ruled out the origin of phosphine on Venus from:

— chemical reactions from molecules known to exist in the Venusian atmosphere
— chemical reactions from sub-surface material (i.e. volcanoes etc.)
— UV radiation causing reactions producing phosphine
— lightning causing reactions producing phosphine
— meteorites delivering phosphine to Venus
— large scale comet / asteroid impact delivering phosphine
— solar wind / charged particles interacting in the atmosphere…

None of these explanations could match the data. So the message is:
We have detected the presence of a molecule in the atmosphere of Venus. We can’t explain by non-microbial means, but on Earth it is produced by microbial life. Can someone explain this?
Which, with true scientific caution, is not quite the same as “We have found life!”

As Isaac Asimov once famously said:
The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not ‘Eureka!’ but rather ‘That’s funny…’

Venus in false colour from the Mariner 10, 1974
Credit

How was the presence of phosphine confirmed?

Slightly technical here, so feel free to skip this part.
All molecules have specific configurations of electrons occupying energy states around their atoms. When these molecules receive energy, such as from photons of light or radiation, the electrons change energy state in discrete transitions. The amount of energy corresponds to a wavelength of electromagnetic radiation. In a spectrum of light from the atmosphere, this wavelength is reduced, causing an “Absorption line” to appear.
Side note: the opposite effect of releasing energy leads to an increase in a particular wavelength, causing “Emission lines”.
Each molecule has a unique combination of possible transitions, creating a fingerprint in the electromagnetic spectrum.

The fingerprint of phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus was detected via an absorption line at 1.123 mm wavelength (i.e. infrared to radio radiation), first with the JCMT (James Clark Maxwell Telescope) and then confirmed with ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimetre / sub-millimetre Array).

The height of phosphine in the atmosphere could be determined from the width of the absorption line. As the planet is rotating, and different layers of atmosphere move at different speeds, an effect similar to the Doppler effect (why sirens change tone when they go past) causes absorption lines to broaden.

What does this mean for alien life?

We’re still looking. Venus, is a hostile place – if you were to dive through the atmosphere and had enough oxygen with you to avoid breathing in sulphuric acid, you’d still be burnt to a crisp before reaching the surface.

Nevertheless, the part of the atmosphere where Phosphine was found is the most hospitable region, with conditions most similar to those found on Earth. If life was found and confirmed on Venus, it would mean that life can survive in far more widespread conditions than previously thought. A large number of exoplanets are currently known – instead of looking for “Earth-like” exoplanets, the door would be thrown wide open for finding life in all kinds of environments.

Ultimately, we are very far from finding another home for ourselves. So in the meantime, we need to take better care of this one planet Earth that we still have.

Stay tuned, let’s see what happens next.

Comets and Conferences

This month we are being visited by comet C/2020 F3, better known as comet NEOWISE, named after the mission that first discovered it. Comets are, roughly speaking, icy rocks from the outer reaches of our solar system. They follow parabolic orbits around the sun; meaning that most of their time is spent at large distances but periodically they come close to the sun. On nearing the sun, they travel much faster (due to the sun’s gravity) and start to warm up, releasing gases. It is this trail of gases that produces the characteristic cometary tail.

Comet NEOWISE reached its closest approach to the sun on the 3rd July and will reach its closest approach to the Earth on the 23rd July. If you miss it, don’t worry, you’ll get another chance in about 6000 years time. So it might be worth trying to see this rare spectacle! Currently, NEOWISE is visible throughout the night with the naked eye and should remain visible until the end of the month. Last night, I even caught a glimpse from the centre of town. (The last time a comet could be seen this easily was perhaps Hale-Bopp in 1997.) Look towards the North West, just below the constellation of Ursa Major (also known as “the plough” or the “big dipper”) and take a few minutes to see if you can spot it. Somehow, I doubt you’ll regret it.

Comet NEOWISE seen from Stanserhorn, Switzerland. Credit: Raphael Niederer, Source: srf.ch

Virtual Conferences

At the start of the month, I attended my first ever virtual conference. In recent years, a move to more online formats has been frequently discussed in the scientific community. Although the motivation to reduce travel in academia has been present for a while, not least for environmental reasons, the move has been accelerated by the current pandemic. The European Astronomical Society annual meeting (EAS 2020) was due to take place in Leiden, Netherlands – but was moved to an online meeting during the same week as originally planned. This actually led to much higher conference attendance – over 1700 participants – and a much reduced conference fee.

Overall, I was fairly impressed. Separate zoom rooms were set up for each session, embedded in the dedicated conference software and hosted by the organisers. There was also a dedicated slack, with separate channels for each session and for different topics. Many features, such as the questions and note taking (exportable to word) worked particularly well. There were a couple of things that – in my opinion – worked even better than an “in real life” conference.

What worked well

  • Attendance: many more people could join online than usual – due to travel costs for those based further away, family commitments or other reasons.
  • Questions: these could be typed and entered at any point during a talk; other people could then upvote questions they wanted to hear answered. At the end of the talk, the most popular questions could then be answered – great idea.
  • Questions 2: run out of time? The conversation continues on the slack channel! Further questions could be asked and answered at leisure and questions were transferred rather than forgotten. Usually, at a conference if you run out of time, forget it. (Unless you’re lucky enough to catch the person in a coffee break later.)
  • Recordings: all of the sessions were recorded, so if there were talks that you had to miss (due to parallel sessions, presenting or other commitments) you could watch them back later.
  • Pre-recordings: some talks – particularly for people in other time zones – could be pre-recorded and played back whilst the presenters themselves were asleep. (Although I did have a colleague who decided to present live anyway – at 2am local time!)
  • Slack: Very useful for getting in touch with people. As well as for conducting quick surveys via emoji reactions! It also meant you could contact people directly (direct messages) without having to search for their email addresses or hunt them down in person. (Let’s face it, we don’t often approach people in person for “minor” points.)
  • Posters: not just a pdf, but gifs, videos and pre-recorded audio presentation – the interactive poster is a different experience!

Nevertheless, it wasn’t perfect – no-one can stay glued to their desk from 9am to 6pm with virtual coffee breaks and parallel lunch sessions too. Several of the above points are also being better addressed by in-person conferences these days, and virtual conferences are no replacement for meeting someone in person.
However, in future we will see a rise in virtual meetings or hybrid events; a new format that the academic world at least is rapidly adjusting to. There are some virtual meetings in my 2021 calendar already.

#BlackLivesMatter – June 10th 2020

Today, 10th June 2020, physicists have called for a Strike for Black Lives. Why? This is not only to add support to the fight against racism and violent discrimination, but also a chance for us to have some uncomfortable conversations. Black people have been and continue to be severely under-represented in academia. We can’t rewrite history, but we can change its course – so why does the percentage of black people in academia remain so low?

Why are there so few black physicists?

Recently I read this article which identified five main influences, that can be roughly categorised as representation (a sense of belonging / self-perception) and support (both academic and personal). In other words, we are discouraged if there are no examples of “people like me”. The absence of coloured physicists is striking, and something I’ve mused upon to colleagues on a few occasions. The ratio is much more biased than in wider society. At several meetings, conferences and work places there is almost always only one black academic. Professionally, I’ve encountered perhaps ~7 people; no more than 10. If you are a black person in academia – you are not alone.

How can we help?

What can we do to improve the situation, without showing favouritism or reducing people to the “token black employee”? Here are a few thoughts.
(Please note – opinions expressed are entirely my own. If I’ve unintentionally offended anyone, or if you have other ideas 🙂 , do not hesitate to let me know)

  • Ensure that we visibly include historical examples of black scientists in outreach and education.
    There is a list of African American scientists on Wikipedia and we would do well to remember and advertise the achievements of Edward Bouchet , George Carruthers , James Harris , Katherine Johnson , Willie Moore , Arthur Walker and others. (and I’m ashamed to learn some of those names for the first time today)
  • Encourage black students and colleagues to join organisations such as https://www.nsbp.org/ not to form “cliques” or promote division, but as a source of support.
  • Advertise opportunities, such as the Bell-Burnell graduate fund that can support people from under-represented backgrounds.
  • Encourage black colleagues to give talks and visibly share their work, collaborate with them and cite them! (Should go without saying.)
  • Give students examples of active black researchers – this could be you too. (Famous examples include Maggie Aderin-Pocock and Neil de Grasse Tyson)

This next one is a bit astronomy specific, but we can give more thought to the cultures we refer to in historical astronomy. We can do more to include not only Asian and Middle-Eastern, but also African, Native American and Aboriginal Australian alongside historical European Astronomy.
(A few minutes on google today led me to the work of Thebe Medupe on traditional African Astronomy and of Duane Hamacher on Aboriginal Australian Astronomy. )

Finally, whilst not being true for all, black people and under-represented groups are facing an uphill battle and may be more reluctant to ask for help – which means we should be all the more willing to offer it.

We are all guilty of unconscious bias; yes, even under-represented groups will also have their own internalised biases. The first step to improvement is becoming more aware of our biases and ways to combat it.

Times of Change

We live in interesting times. Or at least, not many of us can remember a situation where the whole world was impacted so uniformly by the spread of a virus. The last truly global pandemic incident was probably the 1918 Spanish flu. More people died in that influenza pandemic than during the first world war.

Whilst this disruption to our usual routines is threatening, there is no need for the panic buying and extreme media hype surrounding the issue. Covid-19 is certainly a lot less deadly than many other infectious diseases. However, neither is it the time to shrug our shoulders and say “it’s just a flu”.

Global information

With so much noise and fake news circulating as well as situations changing by the hour, it is important to rely on trusted sources such as the World Health Organisation. The site ourworldindata.org does a good job of visualising the latest information.
Several countries are currently adopting an approach of only testing serious or “at risk” cases; which makes sense from a treatment perspective. Yet wider testing, where possible, will help us to get a much better understanding of this new disease.

Social distancing is one of the few measures that has been shown to effectively “flatten the curve” and slow the rate. At the time of writing, cases in most European countries are continuing to double every 2-3 days.

Many of us are now expected to work from home. Schools and universities, shops, restaurants and sports centres are closed. Travel disrupted, borders restricted and a large number of professional and social events cancelled. Research and academia, outside of lab work, is one of those jobs that can be done almost anywhere, provided there is a laptop and an internet connection. In that sense, we are very fortunate in our flexibility. Although universities are trying to continue students education, it is almost inevitable that there is a reduction in teaching hours. Many conferences and meetings have been cancelled, postponed, or replaced by remote calls. Working from home is, nevertheless, a challenge.

The positives

So, what are the best things about Covid-19?

— The reduction in commuting, travel and meetings can free up time for other things; more time for writing and research, perhaps? Certainly many people are rediscovering various pastimes.

— Globally, this has drastically improved emissions and led to noticeable improvements in the health of the environment. It shows that if politicians really wanted to act against climate change, they could.

— Something to consider – is our usual rate of travel and meetings really necessary? A reduction in the number of face-to-face meetings and improved options for remote connection could help many people who can’t always attend in person.

— If working from home emerges as a viable option for such a large portion of the population, will employers become more accepting towards the idea of flexibly working from home more often?

— On a more social level, although we no longer shake hands, many people are making more of an effort to connect with friends, family and neighbours – whilst maintaining distance, of course.

— Shared experience will perhaps make us more empathetic towards each other and, if it’s not too much to hope for, towards refugees and those who are socially isolated.

— At least people are learning how to wash their hands properly.

We are all in this together. Let’s try to collectively transfer the lessons learnt into lasting change. Now is a good time to have a serious think about what we, as a human community, want for the future.

Solar Orbiter

Yesterday, 10th February 2020, saw the successful launch of the Solar Orbiter satellite. This mission will, all being well, provide us with an unprecedented view of our sun, giving us a much better understanding of solar activity, the causes of solar flares and eruptions, as well as in-situ measurements of the solar wind. Let’s break that down a bit.

The sun’s atmosphere, is huge, yet most easily observed from Earth (without extra technology) during a solar eclipse. The uppermost part of the atmosphere is termed the Corona. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles released from the sun, reaches far beyond Earth out through the solar system, yet also has a protective effect against cosmic radiation. For some idea of the scale, the Voyager 2 satellite, launched in 1977, passed Neptune in 1989 yet left the heliosphere in 2018.

Occasionally, the sun releases a significant amount of material (plasma) in a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). These CME events have the potential to damage and disrupt satellites in orbit around Earth, which could quickly bring down communication and navigation services on which we increasingly rely.

Part of the scientific goals of Solar Orbiter are to better understand these transient events, how and where they form, whether they can be predicted. Solar Orbiter will also give us our first close views of the suns surface near its poles. Just a couple of weeks ago, the most detailed images of the sun’s surface yet were made public, from the Daniel Inouye telescope in Hawaii, resolving for the first time details on the sun’s surface as small as…18 miles.

Despite being continuously seen from Earth, there is a lot we still do not understand about our sun. However, we will have to wait a while for Solar Orbiter to reach it’s final destination, science performance to be verified and the first results made public. Just a few more years should do it.
(see also https://www.mps.mpg.de/solar-physics/solar-orbiter )

Hello World

This is a blog space in which I may periodically post with updates and news from my research fields, or affecting astronomy and our research activities in general. (Please bear with me whilst this website is being setup.)

For example, yesterday the second detection of a gravitational waves from a binary neutron star merger was announced by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration. In contrast to the first binary neutron star merger GW170817, the event GW190425 (i.e. detected on the 25th April 2019) was not accompanied by multi-messenger detections across the electromagnetic spectrum, which just shows how lucky we were the first time.
However, the total mass of GW190425 (3.4 solar masses) is somewhat larger than expected for a neutron star merger, so it might be possible that one of the progenitor objects was a black hole.
Accessible article
For researchers

In other news, the astronomy community has been somewhat alarmed by SpaceX’s Starlink satellites being highly reflective and leaving bright streaks across optical images.
Two articles explaining the issue can be found here and here.

No-one is contesting the potential benefits of such satellite constellations providing fast internet across the globe; however SpaceX is not alone and several companies plan to send up thousands of satellites in the near future. There are also remarkably few international regulations governing the use of space and especially optical brightness. It is worth remembering that space and our use of it is something that does not belong to a single nation or company and should not be exploited as such.

This case may be the perfect example of “being helpful” without first fully considering whether everyone’s idea of “help” is the same. If we do not become more careful about our use of space and the number of satellites sent up, the impact to astronomy and the future of humanity could be severe. More satellites can generate more space junk; if this is not cleaned up and becomes an unstoppable cascade we may become prisoners on our own planet and unable to send up more satellites. A problem for GPS, weather forecasting and telecommunications.
For astronomy, such a situation could prohibit future instruments being sent into space, with the existing satellites simultaneously ruining the images of the cosmos from ground-based telescopes.
For now, there is still time to take action against such a scenario ever materialising.